Cultivation of Grape (Vitis vinifera)

 Cultivation of Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Table of content 

1. Brief introduction

2. Importance of grape

3. Uses of grape

3.1 Classification of grape

3.2 Varieties of grape

4. Origin and distribution of grape

5. Propagation of grape

6. Soil and climatic requirements of grape

7. Cultivation aspects of Grape

    7.1 Land Preparation

    7.2 Planting of grape

8. Aftercare of the grape

8.1 Watering

8.2 Manuring and fertilizer application

8.3 Weeding

8.4 Mulching

8.5 Training of grape

8.6 Pruning of grape

9. Flowering

10. Fruiting

11. Yield and productivity

12. Post-harvest management of grapes

13. Disease and pest control

14. Physiological disorders in grapes and their management

 15. Breeding and biotechnology in grapes

1. Brief introduction

Scientific name: Vitis vinifera

Family: Vitaceae

Chromosome no: 2n=38 (Euvitis) and 40 (Muscadinia)

Order: Rhamnales

Origin: Black to Caspian Sea (Mediterranean regions)

Inflorescence: Panicle

Fruit type: Simple fruit, known as Multiseeded berry

Propagation: Hardwood cuttings

Edible part: Pericarp and placenta

Fruit: Nonclimacteric fruit

Pollination: Self-pollination by Cleistogamy (When pollination and fertilization occur in unopened flower bud; also seen in sapota and papaya)

Type of growth curve: Double sigmoid growth curve

Aroma compound found in fruit: Methyl Anthranilate

2. Importance of grape

Grape is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in India. The average productivity of grape in India is 16.95 t/ha, the highest in the world. The genus Vitis is sub-divided into two sub-Genera, Muscadinia and Euvitis. The Muscadina have 40 chromosomes while that of Euvitis have 38. Vitis vinifera is the most popular species of grapes grown in the world. Venifera grapes have forked tendrils and shiny leaves. Vitiis riparia, rupestries, berlandieri, candicans, rufotomentosa and solanis are popular rootstocks for phylloxera and nematode resistance.

Grape was introduced to North India from Iran and Afghanistan in 1300 AD by the Muslim invaders, and to South India in 1832 by the Christian missionaries from France. However, the grape was popularly known in ancient India around the 14th century, though it was not cultivated. Wild grapes grown in Himachal Pradesh were used for the preparation of local wines. The medicinal value of grapes is mentioned in the medical treatise entitled Susruta Samhita and Charaka Samhita written as early as 1356 BC. It was also mentioned in Artha Shastra written by Kautilya in 4th century BC.

3. Uses of grape

Grapes are red, green, and purple grapes and seedless grapes. The grape products include grape jelly, grape jam and grape juice, raisins, currents, sultanas, and wine. Grapes are a rich source of antioxidants and nutrients. They may help boost heart health, prevent cancer, manage blood pressure, and protect the eyes. Resveratrol is a key nutrient in grapes that may offer health benefits. Grapes are a good source of fiber, potassium, and a range of vitamins and other minerals. Grapes are suitable for people with diabetes, as long as they are accounted for in the diet plan.

3.1 Classification of grape

Grapes are classified into different groups according to their uses as table purpose, raisin-making, juice-making, wine-making and canning.

(A) Table purpose:

Table grapes are meant for fresh fruit consumption. These grapes are attractive in appearance and eating quality and with good shipping and keeping qualities. Most of the varieties grown in India are table fruits. The important table grape varieties are Muscat Humburg, Cardinal, Perlette, Thompson seedless (Sultanina), Tokay, Concord, Anab-e-shahi, Pusa seedless, Delware, Catawba, Ohanez, Red Malaga, Emperor, Italia, Muscat etc.

(B) Raisin making

These are the grapes intended for making dried grapes. The raisin variety of grapes should have a soft texture, selflessness with good sugar content, marked pleasing flavour, large or very small size; and little tendency to become sticky in storage. The varieties most extensively used in the commercial production of raisins include Thompson seedless, Seedless sultana, Red Corinth, Cape Currant and Black Monukha. In India, Thompson Seedless and its mutants viz. Sonaka, Tas-A-Ganesh. Manik Chaman are mainly used for raisin production

(C) Juice making

The varieties of sweet juice grapes produce juice of acceptable beverage. The juice should retain the natural fresh grape flavour throughout clarification and preservation. In the United States of America, the Concord grapes are in general for Juice. The varieties White Riesling and Chasslas Dore are used for juice in central Europe. The varieties Aramonand Carignan are utilized for sweet juice in France.

(D) Wine making

Most of the vineyards in Europe, North Africa, South Africa, and South America, Australia, and the United States of America produce wine grapes. Wines are classified as table wines and desert wines. Table wines contain less than 14 percent alcohol while desert wines have more than 14 percent alcohol, usually 17 to 20 percent sugar: acid ratio, total acidity, tannin content, etc., will determine the wine quality. The varieties such as White Rieslin, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tinta Maderi, and Muscat Blanc produce wines of high quality, outstanding in a bouquet, flavour, and general balance.

White Wine Varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Chardony, Clairette found promising and being utilized by commercial wineries in the country.

Red Wine Varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Merlot, Zinfendel, Pinot Noir

Other Wine Varieties: Grenache, Convent Large Black, Carignane, Prince, Saperavi

(E) Canning Grapes

Seedless varieties like Thompson Seedless and canner are generally canned in combination with other fruits.

The varieties grown in Tamil Nadu belong to table grapes. Pachadraksha, Muscat, Anab-e-shahi & Bangalore Blue are the main varieties

3.2 Varieties of grape

Important varieties and hybrids of grapes with their characteristics are listed below.




Introduced from Austrelia

Developed by H. P. Olmo (Grape Breeder)

Cross: Queen of Vineyard × Siltania marble-36

Commercial variety of North India

Problem: Short berry


Selection by R. S. Pillay in 1930

This variety is late maturing and heavy yielding

Berries are elongated, medium large, seeded and amber coloured when fully ripe.

Juice is clear and sweet with TSS 14-16°Brix.

It is highly susceptible to downy mildew.

Average yield is 35 t/ha.

Fruits have a good keeping quality and are mostly used for table purpose.


Sister line of Perlette

Developed by H. P. Olmo

Early maturing variety

Thompson seedless

Dual purpose variety

Popular in South India

Problem-Pink berry formation

TSS- 22-23°Brix

Pusa seedless

Clone of Thompson seedless

Good for raisin making

TSS- 22-24°Brix


Suitable for double cropping

Table variety


Deep purple coloured variety

Table variety

Beauty seedless

Black coloured berry

Cheema Sahebi

Clonal selection of Pandari Sahebi

Developed by Dr.  G. S. Cheema at Pune

Table variety


Clones of Thompson seedless

Manik Chaman


Kishmish Beli

Outstanding raisin cultivar

Sharad Seedless

Selection from Kishmish Charini

Pinot noir

Popular wine cultivar

Pandri Sahebi

Male sterile cultivar

Arka Soma

Sisterline of Arka Kanchan

Alam wicky

Salt resistant

Beauty seedless





Ontario × Sultania



Tokey ×Ribier

Debeloped by E. Syneder at California

Banglore blue

V. vinifera × V. labrusca

Interspecific hybrid

Resistant to anthracnose

Suitable for juice and wine

Suitable for double cropping

Arka Vati

Black Champa × Thompson seedless

Seedless variety

Good for raisin and table

Arka Neelamin

Good for red wine

Arka Krishna

Suitable for juice

Arka Hans

Banglore blue × Anab-e-Shahi

Suitable for wine-making

 4. Origin and Distribution:

The origin of the grape is Asia Minor, between Caspian and Black sea. Major world producers of grapes are Spain, Italy and France. In India, grapes are grown in about > 63,000 ha with a production of about 16.67 lakh tonnes. Major grape growing states are Maharashtra (21,000 ha), Karnataka (5500 ha), TN (2475), Punjab (2400), AP (2500), Haryana, UP & M.P.

5. Propagation of grape

Propagation by hardwood stems cuttings, and cuttings treated with IBA improve rooting. Single bud cuttings also can be rooted by keeping the base of the cutting at a constant temperature of 18-20°C for 2-3 weeks.


The grape can be grown in a wide range of soils if the climate is suitable. Sandy loam with good drainage, fairly fertile with good organic matter is best suited. Optimum pH with good organic matter is best suited. The optimum pH is 6.5-7.5. Heavy soils, very shallow soils, ill drained alkaline soils are not at all suitable. 

Grape prefers the sub-tropical climate. It grows well in all areas with warm to hot dry summers and cool winters. Showers or rain flowering is very dangerous to grapes and reduces yield to a greater extent. The optimum temperature range is 28-32°C.

7. Cultivation Aspects of Grape

    7.1 Land Preparation

i) SOIL SOLARISATION: To re by subhrajyoti's horticulture

Hello friends, I'am Dr. Subhrajyoti , from Odisha, India. I have completed my UG & PG from OUAT and Ph.D. from JAU. During my early year of teaching, I loved to provide important information to the young agriculturists and farmers. With the suggestions from my best friend Mr. S. R. Biswal, (Ph.D. Research Scholar; website designer & content editor of (blog &YouTube), I got interested to create such an amazing platform, where I can share my knowledge to a greater range of audience and also get enriched with new ideas and knowledge. I feel privileged to be in contact with you all. I would like to thank you all for your valuable support and encouragement through viewing my articles. I will always try my best to provide the quality and latest information on this website. Thank you….

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