Classification means grouping any organisms or objects by their similar characteristics. All living organisms in the earth are divided in to two kingdom i.e. plant kingdom and animal kingdom. Scientific Classification of living organisms includes Kingdom, Division (Phylum), Sub-division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species and Variety. Plant kingdom has organisms that are multi-cellular, have cell walls and chlorophyll, produce their own food, and don’t physically move from one place to another. A plant can be divided into 3 parts root, stem and leaf. 



ü The simplest most primitive plant.
ü Plant body is thallus and can’t be differentiated in to root, stem and leaves.
ü Don’t form embryo.
ü Divided in to Algae, Fungi and Lichens.
Examples-Algae, Fungi and Lichens


Ø Plant body is not differentiated in to root, stem and leaves.
Ø Gametophyte is the dominating phase in life cycle.
Ø Vascular and mechanical tissues are absent.
Ø Fertilization is internal.
Ø Sex organ are multi-cellular and jacketed.
Ø Reproduction is oogamous type.
Example: Moss


v Vascular cryptogams.
v Saprophyte is dominating plant phase.
v Plant body is differentiated in to root, stem and leaves.
v Vascular tissue present.
v Sexual reproduction is oogamous type.
v Produce spore inside sporangia.
Example- Ferns


q Tall evergreen trees
q Roots, woody stems
q Needle-shaped leaves
q Vascular tissues is present
q Cones with reproductive structures
q Naked seeds in female cones
q Fertilization by pollen tube
q Show secondary growth
Example- Cycas


ü Produce flower
ü Seeds are covered
ü Double fertilization is present
ü Ovary ripen in to fruit which contains seed
ü Gametophytic phase is reduced.
v They can be broadly divided in to two groups according to the number of cotyledon present in the seed i.e. Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
v Example- Beans, sunflower, cabbage, papaya, mango cashewnut etc. are examples of dicotyledons and maize, onoion, banana etc. are that of monocotyledons.
v Before going to study about any living organisms a detailed knowledge about its systematic classification is essential. by subhrajyoti's horticulture

Hello friends, I'am Dr. Subhrajyoti , from Odisha, India. I have completed my UG & PG from OUAT and Ph.D. from JAU. During my early year of teaching, I loved to provide important information to the young agriculturists and farmers. With the suggestions from my best friend Mr. S. R. Biswal, (Ph.D. Research Scholar; website designer & content editor of (blog &YouTube), I got interested to create such an amazing platform, where I can share my knowledge to a greater range of audience and also get enriched with new ideas and knowledge. I feel privileged to be in contact with you all. I would like to thank you all for your valuable support and encouragement through viewing my articles. I will always try my best to provide the quality and latest information on this website. Thank you….

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