Growing of crop doesn’t imply that we can harvest the optimum quantity or better quality of crop in each fruiting season. We may have more in some high yielding seasons and have even no fruiting in few years. There are various factors which are directly or indirectly involved in crop production. If we have a pre-knowledge on those factors, then we can control or modify few of them in favour of production.

Here are a few suggestions for maintaining the health of your orchard, for achieving better fruiting in every year.

Soil Management

Soil is the most essential element for plant growth as it provides anchorage, water and nutrient to the plant root zone. The essential part in soil is to maintain its bio-physico-chemical property. Chemical property such as the pH must be in a specific range for availing required nutrient and protecting the root zone from various disease and pest attack. For example in pH 6.5-7.5 all most all the nutrients are available hence in every year we should analyse the soil pH and take proper amendment (For acidic soil, Lime and for alkaline soil Gypsum) to maintain this range. The soil should be treated as a living organism. Use of minimum chemical, crop rotation with leguminous crop, cover cropping with broad leaves shallow rooted crops must be done to maintain soil’s biological property. Operations like inter cultivation, summer ploughing, adding organic matter to the soil must be done for maintaining the physical property of soil.

Nutrient Management

For proper plant growth nutrient is essential. All the essential nutrients (viz. C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn, B, Cl, Ni, Mo and Mn) must be available in the soil, which can be determined by soil or plant sample test for nutrient analysis in each three years. Proper precautions must be adopted to enrich the soil, normally as a thumb rule, if the soil pH is maintained at 6.5-7.5 all most all the nutrients will be available for the plant root zone. Again well decomposed Organic matter or compost or vermicompost contains all the essential elements (may be macro or micro element) but less in quantity. They can serve as a remedy for maintaining the soil nutrient status. Green manuring, live mulching, adding organic matter to soil, maintaining the soil pH and adding inorganic fertilizers are essential for maintaining orchard life.
Next comes the time and dose of adding nutrient to the soil. Normally we should not apply the nitrogenous fertilizers 2-3 month prior to flowering as it will enhance more vegetative growth. We should apply the recommended dose of fertilizers in split doses to reduce the nutrient losses by various means. Just after harvesting we have to apply around 3-4 kg of well decomposed organic matter to the root zone by digging a trench 1-2 m away from the trunk and cover it with soil. So that plant can maintain the nutrient loss due to fruiting in previous season. Nutrient like Phosphorous and Potash add resistance in the plant for various diseases and pests hence they should be added in specific dose.

Water Management

Water is required for maintaining the plant tissue turgidity and growth. Both water stress and water logging have bad impact on crop growth. In a fruit plant or perennial plant in which growth occurs in cycles (Vegetative growth-Reproductive growth- Vegetative growth…..) timing of irrigation will determine the fruiting. Irrigation should be stopped 3-4 month prior to flowering otherwise there will be failure of flowering. During the fruit development stage more water will make the fruit test watery hence grower must adopt proper drainage methods. Water shortage during the fruit development stage cause fruit drop hence irrigation should be done in a even distribution. Some crops like grape, humidity in the vine yard will aggravate downey mildew disease, in mango orchard there will be powdery mildew attack in inflorescence, hence there should not be more humidity in the orchard during any growth phase.

Crop Canopy Management

         Penetration of sunlight and movement of wind make the microclimate of plant healthy. Hence proper training and pruning helps in maintaining a healthy orchard life.

Hormonal Management

The changes within a plant from one stage to other are mediated by the growth regulators or plant growth regulators (PGR). The hormonal imbalance within the plant can be managed artificially be foliar spray of particular hormones for achieving good fruiting in the subsequent season.

Weed Management

Weeds most importantly the Parasitic Weeds like (Vanda, Orobanche, Cuscuta etc.) are the major problems in fruit orchard. They will compete or directly consume the photosynthetic product of fruit plant, due to this the fruit plant will under goes a starvation phase and the physiological activities will be hindered. Hence weed most be controlled be summer ploughing, inter cultivation and application of weedicides. The management of parasitic weed though tedious but can be done. When the infestation is in early stage the infested branch should be cut and burnt to remove the further infestation.

Disease and Pest Management

Though the plant is capable enough to give production but it can’t as the physico-chemical activities are altered by the insect and pathogen attack. Considering these, proper remedies must be taken to maintain the healthy orchard life and yield off course the profit for grower.


Hello friends, I'am Dr. Subhrajyoti , from Odisha, India. I have completed my UG & PG from OUAT and Ph.D. from JAU. During my early year of teaching, I loved to provide important information to the young agriculturists and farmers. With the suggestions from my best friend Mr. S. R. Biswal, (Ph.D. Research Scholar; website designer & content editor of (blog &YouTube), I got interested to create such an amazing platform, where I can share my knowledge to a greater range of audience and also get enriched with new ideas and knowledge. I feel privileged to be in contact with you all. I would like to thank you all for your valuable support and encouragement through viewing my articles. I will always try my best to provide the quality and latest information on this website. Thank you….

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